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Environmental Psychology - An Introduction
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Environmental Psychology - An Introduction
von: Linda Steg
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
ISBN: 9781119241041
448 Seiten, Download: 6460 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: A (einfacher Zugriff)

 

 
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Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Title Page 5  
  Copyright Page 6  
  Brief Contents 7  
  Contents 9  
  List of Figures 21  
  List of Tables 23  
  List of Boxes 24  
  List of Contributors 26  
  Chapter 1 Environmental Psychology: History, Scope, and Methods 31  
     1.1 Introduction 32  
     1.2 History of the Field 32  
        1.2.1 Towards ‘Architectural’ Psychology 33  
        1.2.2 Towards a Green Psychology 34  
     1.3 Current Scope and Characteristics of the Field 34  
        1.3.1 Interactive Approach 34  
        1.3.2 Interdisciplinary Collaboration 35  
        1.3.3 Problem?Focused Approach 35  
        1.3.4 Diversity of Methods 36  
     1.4 Main Research Methods in Environmental Psychology 36  
        1.4.1 Questionnaire Studies 37  
        1.4.2 Laboratory Experiments 38  
        1.4.3 Computer Simulation Studies 38  
        1.4.4 Field Studies 39  
        1.4.5 Case Studies 39  
     1.5 Overview of the Book 40  
     Glossary 40  
     Suggestions for Further Reading 41  
     Review Questions 41  
  Part I Environmental Influences on Human Behaviour and Well?Being 43  
     Chapter 2 Environmental Risk Perception 45  
        2.1 Introduction 46  
        2.2 What Are Environmental Risks? 46  
        2.3 Subjective Risk Judgements 47  
           2.3.1 Heuristics and Biases in Risk Judgements 47  
           2.3.2 Temporal Discounting of Environmental Risks 49  
           2.3.3 The Psychometric Paradigm 49  
        2.4 Risk, Values, and Morality 49  
           2.4.1 Values 50  
           2.4.2 Morality and Ethics 51  
        2.5 Emotional Reactions to Environmental Risks 52  
        2.6 Summary 53  
        Glossary 53  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 54  
        Review Questions 55  
     Chapter 3 Climate Change as a Unique Environmental Problem 56  
        3.1 Introduction 57  
        3.2 Public Understanding of Climate Change 57  
        3.3 Assessing the Risk of Climate Change 58  
           3.3.1 Detecting a Problem 60  
           3.3.2 Interpretations of Problems 61  
           3.3.3 Accepting Responsibility and Taking Action 62  
        3.4 Summary 63  
        Glossary 63  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 64  
        Review Questions 65  
     Chapter 4 Environmental Stress 66  
        4.1 Introduction 67  
        4.2 Conceptualizations of Stress 67  
        4.3 Effects of Environmental Stress 68  
           4.3.1 Noise 68  
           4.3.2 Crowding 70  
           4.3.3 Poor Housing Quality 71  
           4.3.4 Poor Neighbourhood Quality 72  
           4.3.5 Traffic Congestion 72  
        4.4 Summary 73  
        Glossary 73  
        Acknowledgements 74  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 74  
        Review Questions 74  
     Chapter 5 Scenic Beauty: Visual Landscape Assessment and Human Landscape Perception 75  
        5.1 Introduction 76  
        5.2 Visual Quality Assessment 76  
        5.3 Theories Explaining Landscape Preferences as Innate or Learnt 77  
        5.4 Measuring and Mapping Scenic Beauty 80  
        5.5 Methodological Developments 81  
        5.6 Summary 82  
        Glossary 82  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 83  
        Review Questions 84  
     Chapter 6 Health Benefits of Nature 85  
        6.1 Introduction 86  
        6.2 What Is Health and How Can It Be Measured? 87  
        6.3 What Is Nature and How Can It Be Measured? 87  
        6.4 Nature and Clinical Health 88  
        6.5 Green Space and Public Health 89  
        6.6 Mechanisms Linking Nature to Health 90  
           6.6.1 Air Quality 91  
           6.6.2 Physical Activity 91  
           6.6.3 Social Cohesion 92  
           6.6.4 Stress Reduction 92  
        6.7 Summary 93  
        Glossary 93  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 94  
        Review Questions 94  
     Chapter 7 Restorative Environments 95  
        7.1 Introduction 96  
        7.2 Restorative Environments Research 96  
           7.2.1 Stress Recovery Theory 97  
           7.2.2 Attention Restoration Theory 98  
        7.3 The Evolutionary Origins of Restorative Nature Experiences 99  
        7.4 Recent Theoretical and Empirical Developments 100  
           7.4.1 Perceptual Fluency Account 100  
           7.4.2 Connectedness to Nature 100  
           7.4.3 Micro?Restorative Experiences and Instorative Effects 102  
        7.5 Applications and Implications 102  
        7.6 Summary 103  
        Glossary 103  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 105  
        Review Questions 105  
     Chapter 8 Ambivalence Towards Nature and Natural Landscapes 106  
        8.1 Introduction 107  
        8.2 Historical Overview 107  
        8.3 Emotional Impacts and Meanings of Natural Environment Experience 108  
        8.4 Views of Nature and Landscape Preferences 109  
        8.5 The Role of Biodiversity 110  
        8.6 An Existential?Motivational Account 111  
        8.7 Practical Implications 112  
        8.8 Summary 113  
        Glossary 113  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 114  
        Review Questions 114  
     Chapter 9 Human Dimensions of Wildlife 115  
        9.1 Introduction 116  
        9.2 Early Work: Attitudes Towards Wildlife 116  
        9.3 The Cognitive Hierarchy 117  
        9.4 Wildlife Value Orientations 119  
        9.5 Predicting Norms and Attitudes Towards Wildlife 121  
        9.6 Emotions Towards Wildlife 121  
        9.7 Summary 123  
        Glossary 123  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 124  
        Review Questions 124  
     Chapter 10 Children and the Natural Environment 125  
        10.1 Introduction 126  
        10.2 Childhood Experiences with Nature 126  
        10.3 Nature and Children’s Health and Well?Being 128  
           10.3.1 Physical Health Benefits 129  
           10.3.2 Mental Health Benefits 129  
           10.3.3 Cognitive Benefits 130  
        10.4 Childhood Nature Experiences and Adult Environmentalism 131  
        10.5 Applications and Implications 131  
        10.6 Summary 132  
        Glossary 132  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 133  
        Review Questions 133  
     Chapter 11 Appraising and Designing Built Environments that Promote Well?Being and Healthy Behaviour 134  
        11.1 Introduction 135  
        11.2 Aesthetic Appraisals of Architecture 135  
           11.2.1 Uniformities in the Appraisal of Built Space 135  
           11.2.2 Observer Differences 137  
           11.2.3 Meaning in Architecture 138  
        11.3 Three BUILDING Design Approaches that Promote Well?Being and Healthy Behaviour 138  
           11.3.1 Social Design 138  
           11.3.2 Biophilic Design 140  
           11.3.3 Evidence?Based Design 141  
        11.4 Summary 141  
        Glossary 141  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 142  
        Review Questions 142  
     Chapter 12 Urban Environmental Quality 143  
        12.1 Introduction 144  
        12.2 Urban Settings as a Source of Stress and Discomfort 145  
        12.3 Urban Settings as a Source of Well?Being and Restoration 146  
        12.4 Residential Satisfaction – A Multicomponent Concept 147  
        12.5 A Multidimensional Approach to Urban Environmental Quality 147  
        12.6 The Multi?Place Approach 150  
        12.7 Summary 151  
        Glossary 151  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 152  
        Review Questions 152  
     Chapter 13 Environment and Quality of Life 153  
        13.1 Introduction 154  
        13.2 QoL: Objective and Subjective Measures 155  
        13.3 QoL: Unidimensional and Multidimensional Measures 156  
        13.4 Environment and QoL: Research Overview 157  
           13.4.1 Which QoL Aspects Are Most Important? 157  
           13.4.2 To What Extent Is QoL Sustained in Certain Situations? 159  
           13.4.3 How Does QoL Differ with Varying Environmental Conditions? 160  
           13.4.4 How Do Environmental Transformations Influence QoL? 161  
        13.5 Summary 163  
        Glossary 163  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 164  
        Review Questions 164  
     Chapter 14 Place Attachment 165  
        14.1 Introduction 166  
        14.2 Theories and Models of Place Attachment 167  
           14.2.1 Components of Place Attachment 167  
           14.2.2 Types of Place Attachments 168  
           14.2.3 Place Attachments Involve an Array of Emotions 168  
           14.2.4 Place Attachments as Dynamic and Socially Produced 169  
        14.3 Applications of Place Attachment 170  
        14.4 Summary 172  
        Glossary 172  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 173  
        Review Questions 173  
     Chapter 15 How Cues in the Environment Affect Normative Behaviour 174  
        15.1 Introduction 175  
        15.2 Overarching Goals and their Relative Strengths 176  
        15.3 Environmental Cues that Directly Strengthen the Normative Goal 178  
        15.4 Environmental Cues that Directly Weaken the Normative Goal 179  
        15.5 Indirect Weakening of the Normative Goal by Environmental Cues that Strengthen the Gain Goal 180  
        15.6 Indirect Weakening of the Normative Goal by Environmental Cues that Strengthen the Hedonic Goal 181  
        15.7 Summary 182  
        Glossary 182  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 183  
        Review Questions 183  
  Part II Factors Influencing Environmental Behaviour 185  
     Chapter 16 Measuring Environmental Behaviour 187  
        16.1 Introduction 188  
        16.2 What to Measure? Behaviour or Impact 188  
           16.2.1 Environmental Behaviour 188  
           16.2.2 Environmental Impact 189  
        16.3 How to Measure Environmental Behaviour? 192  
        16.4 Multidimensional or Unidimensional Measures of Environmental Behaviour 193  
           16.4.1 Multidimensional Measures of Environmental Behaviour 193  
           16.4.2 A Unidimensional Measure of Environmental Behaviour 194  
        16.5 Summary 195  
        Glossary 195  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 196  
        Review Questions 196  
     Chapter 17 Values and Pro?Environmental Behaviour 197  
        17.1 Introduction 198  
        17.2 Values 198  
        17.3 Value Theories 199  
           17.3.1 Social Value Orientations 199  
           17.3.2 Schwartz’s Value Theory 199  
           17.3.3 Four Key Values for Pro?Environmental Behaviour 201  
        17.4 How Values Affect Environmental Behaviour 203  
        17.5 Related Concepts 204  
        17.6 Practical Relevance of Value Research 206  
        17.7 Summary 206  
        Glossary 207  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 207  
        Review Questions 208  
     Chapter 18 Social Norms and Pro?Environmental Behaviour 209  
        18.1 Introduction 210  
        18.2 What Is a Social Norm? 210  
        18.3 How Influential Are Norms on Behaviour? 211  
        18.4 Why Do People Conform to Norms? 212  
        18.5 When Do Norms Influence Behaviour? 212  
           18.5.1 Salience 212  
           18.5.2 Group Size 213  
           18.5.3 Reference Groups 214  
           18.5.4 Personal Norms 214  
           18.5.5 Norm Conflict and the Importance of Aligned Messages 215  
        18.6 Summary 217  
        Glossary 218  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 218  
        Review Questions 218  
     Chapter 19 Emotions and Pro?Environmental Behaviour 219  
        19.1 Introduction 220  
        19.2 Emotions as a Motive for Action 221  
        19.3 Hedonic and Eudaimonic View on Emotions 222  
        19.4 Why Pro?Environmental Behaviour Elicits Positive Emotions: A Closer Look at the Eudaimonic View 224  
        19.5 Summary 226  
        Glossary 226  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 227  
        Review Questions 227  
     Chapter 20 Symbolic Aspects of Environmental Behaviour 228  
        20.1 Introduction 229  
        20.2 Identity 229  
           20.2.1 Environmental Self?Identity and Behaviour 230  
           20.2.2 Factors Influencing Identity 231  
        20.3 Impression Management 233  
        20.4 Summary 235  
        Glossary 235  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 236  
        Review Questions 236  
     Chapter 21 Social Dilemmas: Motivational, Individual, and Structural Aspects Influencing Cooperation 237  
        21.1 Introduction 238  
        21.2 Defining Social Dilemmas 238  
        21.3 Types of Social Dilemmas 239  
           21.3.1 Large?Scale Dilemmas 239  
           21.3.2 Resource Dilemmas 239  
           21.3.3 Public Good Dilemmas 240  
        21.4 Motives in Social Dilemmas 240  
           21.4.1 Greed 240  
           21.4.2 Efficiency 241  
           21.4.3 Fairness 242  
        21.5 Factors Promoting Cooperation 242  
           21.5.1 Group Size 243  
           21.5.2 Communication 243  
           21.5.3 Response Efficacy 243  
           21.5.4 Environmental Uncertainty 244  
           21.5.5 Social Uncertainty 244  
           21.5.6 Norms in Large?Scale Dilemmas 244  
        21.6 Summary 245  
        Glossary 246  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 246  
        Review Questions 246  
     Chapter 22 Theories to Explain Environmental Behaviour 247  
        22.1 Introduction 248  
        22.2 Theory of Planned Behaviour 248  
        22.3 Protection Motivation Theory 250  
        22.4 The Norm Activation Model 251  
        22.5 The Value?Belief?Norm Theory of Environmentalism 253  
        22.6 Goal?Framing Theory 254  
        22.7 Summary 255  
        Glossary 256  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 257  
        Review Questions 257  
     Chapter 23 The Role of Group Processes in Environmental Issues, Attitudes, and Behaviours 258  
        23.1 Introduction 259  
        23.2 Why Should Environmental Psychologists Be Interested in Group Processes? 259  
        23.3 How THE Social Identity Approach Explains Environmental Conflict 260  
        23.4 Why Social Identity Guides Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 261  
           23.4.1 Group Norms Guide Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 262  
           23.4.2 Group Members Influence Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 263  
           23.4.3 Group Identification Influences Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 264  
        23.5 Why Social Identity Can Affect Cooperation on Environmental Issues 264  
        23.6 How THE Social Identity Approach Explains Environmental Group Formation 265  
        23.7 Summary 266  
        Glossary 266  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 267  
        Review Questions 267  
     Chapter 24 Yesterday’s Habits Preventing Change for Tomorrow? About the Influence of Automaticity on Environmental Behaviour 268  
        24.1 Introduction 269  
        24.2 Theoretical Background: How Habits Are Acquired 270  
        24.3 Narrowing Down Decision?Making: How Habits Affect Information Use 271  
        24.4 Measuring Habits: A Challenge for Research 273  
        24.5 Breaking Bad Habits, Creating Good Habits: Interventions Changing Routine Behaviour 276  
        24.6 Summary 278  
        Glossary 278  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 279  
        Review Questions 280  
     Chapter 25 Environmental Psychology in Latin America 281  
        25.1 Introduction 282  
        25.2 Latin American Background 282  
        25.3 Past Reviews on Environmental Psychology in Latin America 283  
        25.4 Recent Developments in Environmental Psychology in Latin America 284  
        25.5 Key Issues for the Development of Research in Latin America 286  
           25.5.1 Lack of Collaboration 286  
           25.5.2 Few Possibilities to Publish in Spanish or Portuguese 287  
           25.5.3 Academic Training in Environmental Psychology 287  
        25.6 Summary 288  
        Glossary 288  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 289  
        Review Questions 289  
  Part III Encouraging Pro?Environmental Behaviour 291  
     Chapter 26 Informational Strategies to Promote Pro?Environmental Behaviour: Changing Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes 293  
        26.1 Introduction 294  
        26.2 Interventions: From Research to Implementation 294  
        26.3 Informational Strategies 295  
           26.3.1 Provision of Information 295  
           26.3.2 Goal Setting 296  
           26.3.3 Commitment 297  
           26.3.4 Prompting 298  
           26.3.5 Feedback 298  
        26.4 Intervention Research: Some General Issues 299  
        26.5 Summary 300  
        Glossary 301  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 301  
        Review Questions 302  
     Chapter 27 Encouraging Pro?Environmental Behaviour with Rewards and Penalties 303  
        27.1 Introduction 304  
        27.2 Analysis of Consequences 304  
        27.3 Natural Versus Extra Consequences 306  
        27.4 When Is It Appropriate to Apply Extra Consequences? 307  
        27.5 How Should Extra Consequences Be Announced and Delivered? 308  
           27.5.1 Negative Versus Positive Consequences 309  
           27.5.2 Monetary Versus Non?Monetary Consequences 309  
        27.6 Summary 311  
        Glossary 311  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 312  
        Review Questions 312  
     Chapter 28 Persuasive Technology to Promote Pro?Environmental Behaviour 313  
        28.1 Introduction 314  
        28.2 Technology and Behaviour 314  
        28.3 Persuasive Technology 315  
        28.4 Approaches to Applying Persuasive Technology 316  
        28.5 Social Influence through Smart Systems 317  
           28.5.1 The Role of Social Cues 317  
           28.5.2 Reactance 318  
        28.6 Providing Persuasive Experiences 319  
        28.7 Persuasive Technology as a Tool to Promote Behaviour Change 319  
           28.7.1 Ambient Persuasion 320  
           28.7.2 Group Interventions 321  
        28.8 Summary 322  
        Glossary 323  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 323  
        Review Questions 324  
     Chapter 29 Acceptability of Environmental Policies 325  
        29.1 Introduction 326  
        29.2 Acceptability as a Social Dilemma 326  
        29.3 Theoretical Framework to Explain the Acceptability of Policy Measures 327  
           29.3.1 Individual Policy Outcomes 328  
           29.3.2 Collective Policy Outcomes 328  
           29.3.3 Fair Distribution of Policy Outcomes 330  
        29.4 Procedural Fairness and Acceptability of Environmental Policies 332  
        29.5 How Can Public Support Increase Over Time? An Illustration 333  
        29.6 Summary 335  
        Glossary 335  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 336  
        Review Questions 336  
     Chapter 30 Processes of Change 337  
        30.1 Introduction 338  
        30.2 Lewin’s Theory of Change 338  
        30.3 Behavioural Change: A Self?Regulation Process Steered by Feedback Loops 339  
           30.3.1 Goals as Reference Values in a Feedback Loop 339  
           30.3.2 Hierarchical Organization of Goals and Feedback Loops 339  
           30.3.3 The Importance of Self?Focus 341  
        30.4 Behavioural Change: It Takes Time to Overcome Resistance to Change 341  
        30.5 The Stage Model of Self?Regulated Behavioural Change 342  
        30.6 Implications for Interventions 344  
        30.7 Empirical Validation of the SSBC 345  
        30.8 Summary 346  
        Glossary 347  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 348  
        Review Questions 348  
     Chapter 31 Simulating Social Environmental Systems 349  
        31.1 Introduction 350  
        31.2 An Introduction to Social Complexity 350  
        31.3 Social Simulation as a Methodology 351  
        31.4 Social Simulation of Environmental Behaviour 352  
           31.4.1 Using Theory in Simulation Models: Formalizing Processes of Attitude Change 352  
           31.4.2 Using Theory and Data in Models: Diffusion of Environmental Innovations 353  
        31.5 Integrating Social Simulation into Environmental Modelling 354  
           31.5.1 The Lakeland Study 354  
           31.5.2 Companion Modelling: A Study of Rice Production and Labour Migrations in North?East Thailand 355  
           31.5.3 Integrating Multiple Models of a Socioenvironmental System: Water Use in the Danube Basin 356  
        31.6 Key Steps in Building Agent?Based Models 357  
           31.6.1 Development of Models 357  
           31.6.2 Using Models 357  
        31.7 Summary 358  
        Glossary 358  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 359  
        Review Questions 359  
     Chapter 32 Environmental Issues in Low? and Middle?Income Countries 360  
        32.1 Introduction 361  
        32.2 Environmental Risk Perception, Environmental Concern, and Climate Change Perception 361  
           32.2.1 Environmental Risk Perception 361  
           32.2.2 Environmental Concern 362  
           32.2.3 Climate Change Perception 362  
        32.3 Residential Environment and Well?Being 363  
           32.3.1 Slums and Public Housing 363  
           32.3.2 Communal Spaces 364  
           32.3.3 Rural Communities 364  
        32.4 Behaviour and Behaviour Change 364  
           32.4.1 Resource Conservation 365  
           32.4.2 Sustainable Transportation 365  
           32.4.3 Recycling 365  
           32.4.4 Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene 367  
        32.5 Summary 368  
        Glossary 369  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 369  
        Review Questions 370  
     Chapter 33 Conclusion: Summary, Trends, and Future Perspectives in Environmental Psychology 371  
        33.1 Summary and Key Findings 372  
           33.1.1 Part I: Environmental Influences on Human Behaviour and Well?Being 372  
           33.1.2 Part II: Factors Influencing Environmental Behaviour 373  
           33.1.3 Part III: Encouraging Pro?Environmental Behaviour 374  
        33.2 General Trends and Developments 375  
           33.2.1 Positive Interactions Between Humans and Environments 375  
           33.2.2 Integrative Approaches 376  
           33.2.3 From One Psychology to Multiple Psychologies 376  
        33.3 Challenges for Future Research 377  
           33.3.1 Further Integration 378  
           33.3.2 Further Development of Theories and Methods 379  
           33.3.3 Further Engagement 379  
        Glossary 381  
        Suggestions for Further Reading 381  
        Review Questions 381  
  References 382  
  Index 437  
  EULA 449  


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